Make an asynchronous clock for VPX-based PCIe systems
Vadim Vaynerman, Bottom Line Technologies Inc, Westminster, MD; Edited by Paul Rako and Fran Granville - January 19, 2012
|Click here to download a PDF|
The VITA46 VPX standard defines a chassis that can accommodate all manner of cards with a common form factor (Reference 1). The cards plug into a common backplane. This design employs the VITA46.4 standard for PCIe to move data between peripheral cards and the host controller in a VPX system. It uses PCIe Revision 1, which runs at 2.5 Gbps. All VPX-compliant cards must use their own independent clocking, differing from other PCIe-compliant systems, such as PCs. VPX-peripheral cards must also create their own clock for PCIe transactions, meaning that the clock is not phase-coherent with the host single-board computer. Thus, the peripheral clock is asynchronous. The PCIe standard allows for this situation and imposes a tight jitter tolerance on all asynchronous PCIe clocks.
The peripheral card in this Design Idea uses an FPGA as the main digital-processing device. FPGA-vendor evaluation boards often feature PCIe interfaces but do not use asynchronous clocking on the board. To implement asynchronous clocking, you use a clock chip that you carefully match to a particular model of oscillator crystal (Figure 1). The clock-chip IC has requirements for the crystal for jitter, aging, and impedance. The crystal should maintain these requirements over a −40 to +85°C temperature swing. You must calculate the crystal’s loading-capacitor values using the formula in the CY24293’s data sheet. Feed the clock from the CY24293 directly into the FPGA’s high-speed-transceiver clock pins, yielding reliable PCIe packet transmission between the peripheral cards and the single-board computer. The CY24293 also has other component and layout requirements, as well. Specifically, it uses a PCIe-device-routing configuration, necessitating controlled impedance traces of specific length and series resistors of specific values.
Datasheets.com Parts Search
185 million searchable parts
(please enter a part number or hit search to begin)